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EASILY CONFUSED WORDS

English has a lot of words that can be easily confused not only by those of you learning English, but also by those of us studying English, and by ‘native’ speakers. English is a rich mix of different influences; very little survives of the original Celtic language from the original inhabitants of the British Isles apart from place names such as York; Church Latin brought by the Roman’s persisted until the sixteenth century; the Germanic Anglo-Saxon ‘settlers’ colonised the eastern and southern part of Britain by the 5th century. Then came the Viking invasions in the 9th and 10th centuries; they brought the influence of Old Norse. In 1066, the Norman conquest of England began bringing a heavy Norman French influence. Then with Britain’s expanding trade and eventually Empire new words entered the language brought not only by the British but the Portuguese, Spanish and Dutch empires thought trade.

There are also many inconsistencies in spellings; there are homographs (wind and wind), homophones (capital and capitol) and homonyms (produce the verb and produce the noun).

Confusion can come about when the meaning is misunderstood by the listener. When we learn a new language, or study our own language, enter a new job or read a new book we are confronted by new words that can confuse us in the form of faddy neologisms or jargon.

It took me a few days to stop using the Spanish word coger in South America; I could no longer coger el colectivo I had to tomar el colectivo (take the bus) in South America. In English there are a number of ways we can confuse ourselves; the first are the superficial differences between the ‘Englishes’ usually to do with spelling or semantics – the meaning of a word. For example, there were two computer programmers; one from America and one from England. When the English programmer and finished writing his program, he sat down to watch a TV programme; then, when the American finished her program she sat down to what her TV program. Which program or program you use depends on where you are and what you are doing. In the next two examples the meaning of each sentence is different; In England it is quite acceptable to say “I’ve never seen such a gorgeous ass”; you would be complimenting someone on their donkey, but using the exact same words in the United States could land you in gaol or is it jail? I get easily confused by these two words. There are also confusions brought about by time, for example, until the early twentieth century, it wasn’t unusual for people of a certain education to say, “I’m feeling rather gay today.” This meant “I’m feeling rather happy.” During this time people sometimes said they felt rather ‘queer’ or strange; both gay and queer have different meanings today – in the early twenty-first century; these are prime examples of the semantic shift in words. England also has a fantastic culinary tradition; one such culinary delight is the faggot; I love faggots and regularly eat them – faggots in England are large meatballs by the way. However, I am sure this is still an arrestable offence in some parts of the United States and the wider world.

Time has also changed the meaning of wicked and cool; in the late 1990s they meant something like fantastic or really good. In today’s news media the words snowflake and gammon have taken on a new meaning. These words are often used as terms of abuse in the news media it is debatable how much they are used outside the confines of newspapers and troll or water armies. Confusion can also occur through pronunciation; in the American ABC comedy TV series Modern Family the character Gloria Delgado-Pritchett played by the American-Columbian actor Sofía Vergara is asked by her husband to get some baby cheeses and she orders lots of baby Jesuses. But there is also confusion brought about by homophones; for example, which of the following means to be still or not moving? In her Grammarly blog Top 30 Commonly Confused Words in English, Brittney Ross mentions two confusing words: Complement and Compliment; both words are spelt differently; they both have different meanings but the same pronunciation both for the verb and noun forms. So, what happens when we hear these words, how do we learn how to spell them? Stationary or stationery? Confused? It’s common to confuse these two words even among so-called ‘native’ speakers, so look at the two words in context: The train was stationary, so I popped into the stationery store and got these envelopes and pens. How do I get around the problem? In my head I tend to stress the final vowel in both words and remember the context; that helps me remember the spelling. And there are the principles and principals: There are fundamental principles we all live by; one of them is that we shall not steal. Many school principals have at least a master’s degree is the headmaster of a school. How do you remember which is which? Well you could use spelling mnemonics; for example, my pal is a school principal. The other way of confusing you is the non-transparent spelling system; we don’t always mean or say what is written; in English vowels aren’t pronounced or used. Take, for example, the word chocolate; in Spanish all the vowels are pronounced, in English we are lazier and drop the second ‘o’ vowel sound, so it’s pronounced as choclate.

So, knowing how a word is pronounced and practicing can often help our spelling, but there is also the problem of the spell check; how many of us have used the spell check and this marvellous device has sent the wrong word making us look completely illiterate? Embarrassing isn’t it! As Brittney Ross says in her Grammarly blog Top 30 Commonly Confused Words in English ‘your word might be spelled right, but it may be the wrong word.’ We also have the double entendre is a figure of speech that has two meanings or interpretations; this form of ambiguity can cause confusion in meaning, for instance, newspaper headlines are notorious for this; take for example this headline, ‘Strikes to Paralyse Travellers’; does it mean that travellers will be physically paralysed or does it mean that the infrastructure will be paralysed and travellers won’t be able to travel? Anther confusing example is that 21 taxes choke tourism operators – Parliament cries; a parliament crying because tourism operators were choked by twenty-one taxes!

Chris Scott February 2020

Reference List

Brittney Ross [n.d.], Top 30 Commonly Confused Words in English, Grammarly blog, viewed 30 December 2019, < https://www.grammarly.com/blog/commonly-confused-words/ >.

Mirror.co.uk 17 August 2016, Strikes to Paralyse Travellers, Mirror, viewed 30 December 2019, < https://www.mirror.co.uk/news/uk-news/strikes-to-paralyse-travellers-638297 >

Richard Annerquaye Abbey January 24, 2019, 21 taxes choke tourism operators – Parliament cries, viewed 30 December 2019, https://thebftonline.com/2019/editors-pick/21-taxes-choke-tourism-operators-parliament-cries/

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発音の向上

 

ハッキリとした発音はコミュニケーションにおいて、とても重要な役割を果たします。発音をおろそかにすると、恥ずかしい思いをしたり気まずい状況に陥ってしまうこともあり、発音練習の意欲をなくしてしまうこともあります。以下では、自宅でリラックスしながら発音練習をして自信をつける、さまざまなヒントをご紹介します。 

鏡とBBCの発音練習ビデオを利用する 

発音は運動の一つです。正しい発音をするには口の形に注意することが大切です。 「BBC Learning English」のビデオと鏡を利用して、難しい発音の訓練をしましょう。 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/learningenglish/features/pronunciation

自分の発音を録音する 

初めは少し違和感を感じるかもしれませんが、自分の発音を録音することで、何を修正する必要があるのかを実感できます。映画やテレビ番組のセリフを繰り返し発音し、聴き返してみて本物の発音と比べてみましょう。さらに、口の形を分析するために、発音している姿をビデオに撮るのもよいでしょう。 

 Siri」に話しかける 

Siri、Alexa、Googleなどの瞬時にあらゆる情報を提供してくれるAIアシスタントは、多くの人々に利用されています。しかし、これらの賢い機能が発音向上にも役立つということをご存じですか?言語設定を英語にして会話をしてみましょう。とくに難しいと感じた発音フレーズを書き留めておき、それらを発音してみてAIアシスタントが理解できるかを確認してみましょう。 

歌をうたう 

歌をうたう行為は気分を上げる効果だけでなく、発音練習にも効果があります。歌詞がついた曲のミュージックビデオをみてみましょう。まずは慣れるまで何度か聴いて、その後歌手に合わせて歌をうたってみます。必要に応じて停止したりリピートしたりして、練習しましょう。 

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SeaCity Museum, Southampton

Last week was amazing; I visited the SeaCity museum in Southampton with my friend Hassan.  I learned a lot about Southampton’s history and the Titanic.  Actually, I got very excited watching the Titanic film. 

While we were at the museum, we talked about what happened, and we visualised the lack of safety boats on the Titanic and how this changed for future ships.  In my opinion, there is no person to blame, but this was the result of a sequence of mistakes and wrong decisions.  

The important thing is that we get the benefits of what happened and maybe try to avoid such events again. 

Mustafa A.

October, 2019 

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Aprende inglés en cualquier momento y en cualquier lugar

Algunas de las mejores y más divertidas formas de practicar inglés también pueden ser completamente gratis. Todo lo que necesitas es un teléfono móvil y conexión a Internet, y tendrás acceso a una increíble selección de aplicaciones que pueden ayudarte a mejorar sin importar dónde estés. Estos son algunos de nuestros favoritas:

  1. Memrise –Esta aplicación fue diseñada por un Gran Maestro de la Memoria y un neurocientífico para ayudar a la gente a aprender idiomas de forma más eficiente y poder recordar mejor. Puedes elegir entre un conjunto de vocabulario, o puedes crear el tuyo propio.

www.memrise.com

  1. Quizlet – Esto también te ayudará a aprender vocabulario, pero con fichas. Puedes estudiar las palabras primero, y luego ponerte a prueba de diferentes maneras. Si tienes una lista de palabras que necesitas aprender para una clase o para un examen, entonces puedes entrar en la aplicación y aprenderlas en un abrir y cerrar de ojos

www.quizlet.com

  1. Wordreference – Todos usamos Google Translate para ayudarnos a entender nuevas palabras, pero esta aplicación de diccionario es mucho mejor. Incluye muchos idiomas diferentes, como francés, español, italiano, árabe y mucho más. También le ayudará a entender mejor la gramática de la palabra y te dará ejemplos de oraciones.

www.wordreference.com

  1. Macmillan Sounds – Esta es una gran aplicación para mejorar la pronunciación, ya que muestra todos los diferentes sonidos que usamos en inglés. Puede pulsar un sonido y luego repetirlo hasta que estés satisfecho con tu pronunciación.

http://www.macmillaneducationapps.com/soundspron/

¿Hay alguna otra aplicación que te guste? ¡Cuéntanos sobre ellas!

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Canciones para aprender inglés

Los profesores de idiomas utilizan las canciones como parte de su repertorio de enseñanza en el aula. Las canciones contienen lenguaje real, son fáciles de memorizar, proporcionan vocabulario, gramática y aspectos culturales y además son divertidas.  

A través de ellas puedes escuchar una amplia gama de acentos como inglés británico, caribeño o americano, entre otros. 

Las letras de las canciones pueden ser utilizadas para relacionarse con situaciones del mundo que nos rodea. Estas letras proporcionan una valiosa práctica oral, auditiva y lingüística dentro y fuera del aula.  

Por lo tanto, te traemos una selección de canciones con las que podrás aprender o reforzar diferentes puntos gramaticales de la lengua inglesa. 

“Dust in the Wind” by Kansas 

Usamos el tiempo presente simple para hablar de cosas que suceden comunmente o con frecuencia en el presente o para hablar de características de personas o cosas. 

“And She Was” by Talking Heads  

En realidad existen varias formas para los tiempos continuos en inglés. Hay tiempos continuos para el pasado, presente y futuro, y también hay un continuo perfecto para el pasado, presente y futuro. 

“Summer of ’69” by Bryan Adams 

Usamos el pasado simple para describir las cosas que empezaron y terminaron en el pasado. En otras palabras, se trata de acciones completadas. 

 “Ready to Run” by The Dixie Chicks 

Hay varias maneras de hablar sobre el futuro en inglés, las más comunes son: 

-El futuro simple (“will“). 

-El futuro continuo (“will” y un verbo terminado en –ing). 

-La estructura “going to” (una forma de “be” más “going to” más un verbo). 

-El presente continuosi incluimos una palabra de tiempo futuro. 

“We Can Work It Out” by The Beatles 

Los verbos pueden ser difíciles, principalmente porque pueden significan cosas diferentes. 

“Always On My Mind” by Elvis Presley  

Los modales perfectos se construyen con un modal más “have” más un verbo en participio pero los usamos para hablar del pasado 

 

“Thinking Out Loud” by Ed Sheeran 

“If “If It Hadn’t Been For Love” by Adele 

“I Were A Boy” by Beyoncé 

Usamos condicionales para hablar sobre posibles acciones y los resultados de esas acciones. Normalmente los dividimos en cuatro tipos: 

– Cero Condicional. 

– Primer condicional: presente o futuro. 

– Segundo Condicionalpresente irreal. 

– Tercer Condicionalpasado irreal. 

“Stressed Out” by Twenty-One Pilots  

También hay diferentes maneras de hablar de los deseos. 

Tenemos dos personas, y la primera es la que pide o tiene un deseo y la segunda es el tema de ese deseo. La mayor diferencia es que los deseos son irreales o imposibles, así que necesitas cambiar el segundo verbo al pasado para indicar que es irreal. 

“Simple Man” by Lynyrd Skynyrd 

El reporter speech o estilo indirecto es uno de los aspectos gramaticales que más confusión presenta entre los estudiantes. 

 

¡Practica y diviértete con esta selección de canciones!